This article holds a sentement that I have agreed with for a long time. While I would love to see humanity go to Mars, biologically It’s probably not meant to be. Not without some changes. And, in the short term at least, it is very unlikely that Mars itself will be the one doing the changing.
Sure we can get people to survive on Mars. I’m sure we could have missions there of a month or longer. Maybe even a long-term base with crew rotating out at periodic intervals. The issue arises when you take a human, put him on Mars, and then expect them to not only stay there the rest of their lives but raise a healthy family also. There are the basic problems. No oxygen, no air pressure, no water. So assuming you can handle all of those you still have to figure out a way to deal with the fact that Mars doesn’t have a magnetosphere, which on Earth, is the only thing that protects you from being constantly irradiated from interstellar radiation. Combine that with the .3G of Earth gravity that exists on Mars, (leading to bone density issues) and any children you have up there have a huge risk of becoming emaciated and irradiated. Terraforming could help us possibly breathe outside on mars but nothing will fix the gravity and radiation problems
Because of these reasons, I think in the short term that bioforming the human genome to live on Mars is the only real solution. Humans on Mars would become Martians. They would literally need genomes adapted to live on the planet Mars just like millions of years of evolution have adapted Homosapien to live on Earth.
In 1972, citizen scientist Sir Elton John hypothesized that Mars “ain’t the kind of place to raise your kids.” While John’s remarks were never published in a peer-reviewed journal (though they did peak at No. 2 on the UK Singles Chart), he’s not wrong about the Red Planet’s inhospitality.